...there will be two billion more people in China, India, and Africa alone. In addition, the middle class is expanding rapidly worldwide and many people will purchase a vehicle for the first time. To support these populations we need more energy and more food while reducing carbon emissions.
Expanding global middle class.
Middle class by region:
China, India, Brazil, Mexico. South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iran, Turkey, Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, United States, Canada, Australia.
OPEC is expected to remain the world's major oil source, with prices continuing to fluctuate with the demand for oil.
Revolutionary technology offered by C2XX can produce more oil without increasing global CO2 outputs and extend the life of our fossil fuel reserves. This technology utilizes CO2 to create natural fertilizers that remove excess waste from the atmosphere and increase agricultural yields. This vision can transform the future by changing the way we produce fuel.
By using C2XX technology to convert coal to oil without net CO2 emissions, coal can become an environmentally responsible option.
Exceeding even OPEC reserves, coal is the largest potential source of oil in the world—with massive reserves located in the US, China, India, Russia, and other countries. Coal liquefaction technology could ease future oil supply concerns, help keep oil prices steady, and increase the world oil supply from 50 to 110 years at today's rate of consumption.
Supported by 70 former Exxon Mobil experts with over 1,500 years of combined experience in petroleum, coal, bitumen, coal tar, heavy oil, and residuum, this world-class team has developed technologies that can transform the future of responsible fuel.Senior Staff Bios
C2XX offers a "state of the art" Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction process for the direct conversion of coal into maximum yields of gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, syncrude, and/or chemicals (olefins and aromatics).
Unlike Indirect Coal Liquefaction (ICL) processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch, it is not necessary to gasify all of the coal first to produce liquid products. In comparison, MCL can produce over three times as much oil as ICL for the same amount of coal gasification. Since gasification is the lowest efficiency step and a high water consumer, MCL is far more efficient and utilizes less water (3.5 to 7 tons/ton of product versus 11 to 12 tons/ton) than ICL technologies. This is particularly important in areas such as Inner Mongolia and the western United States. where water is scarce.
Because of the use of a super activity dispersed catalyst, MCL does not use large concentrations of low activity iron catalysts or the partial hydrogenation of a recycle solvent stream employed by other DCL processes. Based on a C2XX study, the MCL approach increases thermal efficiency by 7% over system using external hydrogenation.
The MCL process has been extensively tested on a wide variety of coals at plant capacities of up to 1,000 B/D. This program, for the latter step, was rigorously implemented to ensure all of the necessary data and procedures to confidently design a full scale commercial plant were acquired and documented.
The China Coal Research Institute (CCRI) provides validation testing of new coals and provides oil product for upgrading studies such as jet fuel. The CCRI operates the only certified DCL pilot plants in China. During a recent test of the MCL process on an Inner Mongolian coal, a product yield of 67wt% of C5/700°F was achieved, which is the highest known DCL yield. This product was readily upgraded to finished products or blend stocks.
The upgraded products from MCL are free of S, N, and O and possess superior properties. Gasoline can have an octane in excess of 105, the jet fuel has a high volumetric Btu content and thermal stability that allows operation for longer periods of time at Mach 3 and higher, and the diesel fuel will provide greater range than conventional diesel fuel and is suitable for Arctic operations. Thermal efficiency for a fully integrated plant can exceed 70% when using coal only or significantly exceed 70% if natural gas is available. For a plant located in the U.S., representative operating cost will be under $ 30/B.
C2XX also offer TerraSync™ for management of CO2. This technology utilizes CO2 produced in MCL with ammonia that is produced during products upgrading. These streams along with water provide the reactants for the production of the intermediate algae along with the nutrients to increase the rate of growth. The live algae is formulated in TerraSync™ which is used as a bio-fertilizer or soil stabilizer.
Because the algae is deposited live onto farm land, it continues to grow and consume CO2 and also fix nitrogen from the air to form a natural fertilizer. Because of the continuing growth of the bio-fertilizer, the quantity of CO2 from the plant that must be processed to completely offset CO2 emissions from the plant amount to less than 5% of the CO2 produced in the plant.
Studies are now underway to use unconverted MCL coal bottoms, plus ash, to replace raw coal in cement plants. Thus the left over material from the MCL plant can be used to replace coal without any added CO2 emissions. In addition, any remaining hydrocarbons from MCL are incinerated in the cement plant. Effectively, ash becomes part of the cement, thus eliminating the need for ash disposal in a landfill.
C2XX believes that if the above steps are combined in a single MCL complex, coal can be converted into fuels and chemicals in an environmentally acceptable fashion with emissions of CO2, SO2, and ash disposal being eliminated.
Based on Brookings Institution projections, by year 2030, the number of people whose incomes will be considered “middle class” will reach 4.7 billion, up from 1.9 billion in 2010. An ever expanding global middle class means that more personal and industrial vehicles, and airplanes will be needed to accommodate the influx.
Transportation fuel use by 2040 is projected to shift from gasoline to diesel fuel and jet fuel. The use of gasoline is forecasted to remain relatively constant even with a 100% increase in automobiles on the road due to greater use of electric cars, hybrid vehicles, and a shift to diesel.
Many worldwide refineries, designed for production of gasoline will require major investment to allow a shift to the production of diesel and jet fuel. This is further complicated by crude oil from fracking which Is more easily converted into gasoline.
Unlike existing refineries, new MCL plants can vary the product slate from maximum gasoline to jet fuel and diesel by varying operating conditions. The MCL jet fuel and diesel fuel will offer increased miles per gallon and improved operation in cold climates.Thus, MCL offers another route for producing fuels for the future.
Based on historic coal prices in the U.S., the price of coal for the production of a barrel of oil is between $3 and $10. Because of the large coal reserves, U.S. coal prices have remained relatively constant. Use of the coal in the U.S. would create jobs and ensure that the coal was consumed in an environmentally acceptable fashion.
History has shown that the projection of future oil prices is dependent upon events that are difficult to predict. Swings of 1 to 2 million barrels a day of crude can result in shortages or surpluses and the resultant swing in crude prices.
The fully developed technology offered by C2XX provides countries with large coal reserves a future that includes reduced dependence on OPEC for crude supplies and the cost of maintaining those supplies, stabilized oil prices, produce advanced fuels and chemicals, and create jobs while minimizing GHG emissions.
C2XX is a leader in fuel technology and innovation. We are committed to staying up-to-date with the latest in cutting-edge inventions, global news, and ideas for creating a sustainable future. C2XX has assembled a world class team of technology providers.
MCL & Terrasync
Shell Global Solutions
Criterion Catalysts and Technologies
Testing and Process Demonstration
China Coal Research Institute
Engineering Contractors and Marketers
Major Chinese EPC contractor - tba
Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions
Dedicated MCL Experts
Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions